Human beings are believed to have evolved from apes over millions of years. We have learned to walk on two feet, build tools and create and understand languages very gradually. Most of this evolution, scientists have discovered, happened in the continent of Africa. And with evolution, early humans began to migrate out of the continent to other parts of the world. They are believed to have moved to Asia first, about two million years ago, after which they set out for Europe. Humans populated the rest of the world much later, according to the official website of the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History.
A recent report titled Face of First Brit Revealed published by the University College of London says that the Britons of 10,000 years ago were dark-skinned with black hair and blue eyes. The report tells us two things. One, all races evolved from the original, dark-skinned people–the Africans. And two, migration is as old as mankind itself. Human beings evolved depending on the landscapes and the climates they migrated through. This explains most of our physical features, including our complexion.
Indeed, the colour of our skin or the race we are born into are things we have no control over. Yet, they are a big part of our identity. Most of us may even be proud of our skin colour and our race. However, when we move to another country, where another race forms the majority of the population, there’s a chance we may experience racial discrimination.
Countries like the United States of America, for instance, are populated by people of varying ethnicities. While such diversity has made the country a potpourri of cultural richness, it has also led to a fair share of bitterness and resentment. To this day, people of colour–non-Caucasians–are seen as outsiders. They face racial discrimination quite often and are even subjected to acts of violence. Through the ages, they have suffered injustice and indignity in countless forms. However, despite all odds, they have fought back time and again with indomitable strength and courage.
In the past, several movements were organised by oppressed races and communities across the world to fight against racial discrimination. They fought and succeeded in reclaiming their right to live a life of dignity. On Zero Discrimination Day, Soulveda recounts a few such movements, in the hope that someday, we will have a more equal world.
African-American Civil Rights Movement
Until the 1800s, people of African descent were enslaved and ill-treated by affluent men and women across the United States of America. This was especially prevalent–and legal–in the southern states. A rift between the states in which slavery was legal (the Confederacy) and those in which it was illegal (the Union) then led to one of the most important wars in history–the American Civil War. At the end of the war, slavery was abolished and African-Americans were given the right to vote.
Unfortunately, the Civil War was just the beginning of the struggle for the African-Americans. In the subsequent decades, they continued to suffer severe racial discrimination at the hands of the authorities and the public alike. They were unable to get houses on mortgage or rent, and there was segregation between black and white Americans at schools, workplaces and even the military.
By 1954, the Civil Rights Movement began. What started off with lawsuits and educational activities, to increase awareness among the public, soon turned into non-violent protests and civil disobedience. Eventually, people of different races joined the movement. Finally, their collective efforts proved fruitful. By the end of the movement in 1968, five federal laws and two amendments to the Constitution were passed in their favour. It became a legal offence for people to racially discriminate against anyone on the basis of skin colour, race, gender, religion or home country.